My main area of research is illicit substance abuse or drug addiction. My research interest includes studying the long-term effects of kratom use (Mitragyna speciosa) in regular kratom users, identifying methadone treatment barriers, assessing risky HIV behaviours of people with co-occurring opiate and Amphetamine-Type-Stimulant (amphetamine/methamphetamine) use, determining treatment needs of female-drug users (FDU), as well as evaluating the effectiveness of current harm-reduction programs targeting illicit drug users. Moreover, I conduct studies to monitor the present substance abuse trends in the country. I basically work with out-of-treatment opiate, ATS, ketamine and New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) users. In fact, I am also involved in a few University-Community engagement programs targeting communities plagued with substance abuse problems. The aim of my research is to determine the social, health and economic impact of drug use on the quality-of-life of drug users in Malaysia.